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APA Referencing Guide

This online guide is an abridged version of the American Psychological Association (APA, 2020a) 7th edition manual.


For the standard layout of a note section please see Figures and Tables Basics.


If you include explanations in a note regarding the content of a table/figure, the order of information would be presented as:

1. Explanations of abbreviations.

2. Explanations of the data, including individual cells, columns or rows.

3. Acknowledgement of sources (ie. references).


An visual aid which can be used as a template for building a noye. The text overlay reads: "Note. ABR1 = Abbreviation 1; ABR2 = Abbreviation 2. General comment on the data in full sentences, including individual cells, columns or rows if necessary. From/Adapted from Title of Resource, by A. Author, Year, Source (URL/DOI). Copyright year by Name of Copyright Holder or Creative Commons license."



Note. RDI = Recommended Dietary Intake; AI = Adequate Intake; UL = Upper Limit. Percentage intake for carbohydrate is the proportion of energy intake; Percentage intake for fibre is the proportion of AI. Adapted from Jane Doe's Nutrition by Nutrition Experts, 2021, Foodzone ( Copyright 2021 by Nutrition Experts.

For more information on figures and tables please see page 43-44 of the referencing guide.

For examples of note sections under tables please see APA Style (2021a).


If you have adapted information from multiple sources and require more than one reference below the figure, list them in alphabetical order by author (ie. as they appear in the reference list).


Note. Adapted from Nutrition Panel Calculator, by Food Standards Australia New Zealand, 2020, ( CC BY 3.0; The Health Benefits of Sprouting and Soaking, by Grains & Legumes Nutrition Council, n.d., ( Copyright 2023 by Grains & Legumes Nutrition Council.


If you create a table with information from multiple book pages, list the pages and page ranges in numerical order in the note. 

1. For multiple pages, use the abbreviation pp. and separate page ranges with an en dash. 

2. When pages are discontinuous, use a comma between the page numbers.


Note. Adapted from Clinical Handbook of Internal Medicine: The Treatment of Disease with Traditional Chinese Medicine (2nd ed., pp. 1-3, 61-63, 561-564, 692-694, 1064, 1085), by W. Maclean, J. Lyttleton, M. Bayley, & K. Taylor, 2018, Eastland Press. Copyright 2018 by William Maclean.


If you create a table where a specific note is required for a particular column, row or cell, you can choose to include superscript notations. Superscript is best used for singular instances where a number or cell requires a specific comment to provide context, or where cells have a determined relationship which requires explanation. Within each table that has a specific note, order the superscript using letters; from left to right and from top to bottom, starting at the top left and beginning with the letter "a". References and general comments should not be presented in superscript.


Note. MD = Median Distribution; ADR = Acceptable Distribution Range. Adapted from “Social Media: A Contextual Framework to Guide Research and Practice”, by L. A. McFarland and R. E. Ployhart, 2015, Journal of Applied Psychology, 100(6), p. 1656. Copyright 2015 by the American Psychological Association. 

Derivative of age range. Control condition = 0. Male = 1, Female = 2. Study year was average of total years of study.

For examples of note sections under tables please see APA Style (2021a).



American Psychological Association. (n.d.-a). APA style 

American Psychological Association. (n.d.-b)Student sample paper with annotations. APA Style.

American Psychological Association. (2020a). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed.).

American Psychological Association. (2020b, October 21). Student paper setup guide. APA Style.

American Psychological Association. (2021a, December). Sample Tables. APA Style.

American Psychological Association. (2021b, December). Table setup. APA Style.

American Psychological Association. (2022a, July). Appropriate level of citation. APA Style.

American Psychological Association. (2022b, July). Elements of reference list entries. APA Style.

American Psychological Association. (2022c, July). Font. APA Style.

American Psychological Association. (2022d, July). Headings. APA Style.

American Psychological Association. (2022e, July). Numbers expressed in numerals. APA Style.

American Psychological Association. (2022f, July). Numbers expressed in words. APA Style.

American Psychological Association. (2022g, July). Paragraph alignment and indentation. APA Style.

American Psychological Association. (2022h, July). Paraphrasing. APA Style.

American Psychological Association. (2022i, July). Quotations. APA Style.

American Psychological Association. (2022j, July). Sample papers. APA Style.

American Psychological Association. (2022k, July). Use of italics. APA Style.

American Psychological Association. (2022l, August). Citing multiple works. APA Style.

American Psychological Association. (2023, March). About APA style

McAdoo, T. (2023, April 7). How to cite ChatGPT. APA Style.

Microsoft. (n.d.-a). Add a heading.

Microsoft. (n.d.-b). Change margins

Microsoft. (n.d.-c). Create a hanging indent.

Microsoft. (n.d.-d). Double-space the lines in a document.

PSI CHI. (2022, April 5). Webinar: So you need to write a literature review/key tasks & how to accomplish them 03/16/2022 [Video]. YouTube.